Theological Paper Submitted to

the Northern California Presbytery of the Presbyterian Church in America

"Baptism with the Holy Spirit:

The Essential Event for All Believers

After Christ's Death, Resurrection and Ascension"

- © Joel H. Linton, Summer 2004




The topic of Baptism with the Spirit has sparked much interest and not a little controversy in the twentieth century, and continues to draw discussion today. With a desire to bring warmth into churches grown cold and lifeless, many have re-examined the Scripture’s teaching on the Holy Spirit. Some have sought out Scripture to explain key experiences in their own lives or in those who were affected by times of revival. Others, after studying Scriptures, developed a doctrine that has led to an explosion of post-conversion "Spirit baptism" experiences in their churches.

The lightning-rod of interest centers around the book of Acts, and particularly the Pentecost experience of the Holy Spirit in Acts 2. Some in the Pentecostal movement have seen the disciples' experience as normative for the church today and have called for all Christians to seek out a "second blessing" of baptism with the Spirit that is accompanied by speaking in tongues. In seeking this out, some have gone to the extent of holding tongue-speaking practice sessions as if a formulaic ritual can call down the Spirit’s fire. Others have looked more for a post-conversion empowering of the Holy Spirit. And still others, taking a completely different interpretation, see the Pentecost event to be a once-for-all non-repeatable reality belonging to the church universal, and so expect to see none of its outward signs today.

This paper examines, beginning with the ministry of John the Baptist, the Scripture passages related to the baptism with the Spirit, weighing John’s and Jesus’ explanations of the coming Pentecost event, then considers the event, itself, and finally examines its relevance for the church today. This paper seeks to show that Pentecost is a complex of multiple Spirit-related activities, and that baptism with the Spirit is the one out of which all the others flow, some experiences continuing int the church today, while others being unique to the era of the Apostles' ministry. This paper will show that for the individual today or in the time of Acts, baptism with the Spirit is no less than the giving of the presence of the Spirit of Christ to inaugurate in the person a new covenant relationship with God. For the church universal, Pentecost was the inauguration of the era of the new covenant church.


Looking Forward to Pentecost

"Do not leave Jerusalem, but wait for the gift my Father promised, which you have heard me speak about. For John baptized with water, but in a few days you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit" Acts 1:4b-5

In introducing his disciples to the coming baptism of the Spirit, Jesus reminds them of John the Baptist's ministry. For indeed, from the start, in preparing the way for Jesus, John singled out the aspect of Jesus ministry of baptizing with the Spirit. John said, "I baptize with water, but after me... he will baptize with the Holy Spirit and with fire." (Luke 3:16, Matt. 3:11 and Mark 1:8). In seeking to explain the baptism of the Holy Spirit, Jesus and John both used John's baptism as a point of departure. Although the two baptisms are different, elements in John's baptism will help one understand Jesus' baptism.


Insights from John's Baptism

John preached a simple message: "repent for the kingdom of heaven is near" (Matt. 3:2). John's baptism is one of repentance for sin (Matt. 3:11). But this repentance is not just a general repentance of averting temporal judgement like the repentance of the Ninevites in response to the preaching of Jonah (Jonah 3:10). It is the repentance prefaced by faith in a promise, that of the coming kingdom, and therefore the promise of the Messiah. Correspondingly, the baptism with the Holy Spirit brings faith in the fulfillment of the Messianic promise, as can be seen in the household of Cornelius (Acts 11:17).

The people responded to John's message in two ways, first by confessing their sins and then by being baptized with water (Matt. 3:6). John washing people with water signified that they were inwardly dirty and needed to be cleaned. John's use of water symbolized purification from sin as preparation for the coming presence of God in the Kingdom of Heaven.

The Jews could relate to this rite. God had established ritual purification by washing with water in the Old Testament ceremonial laws. Just as the Lord's presence in the camp of the Israelites required special attention to washing (Deut. 23:14), so the Lord's coming presence in the Kingdom required purification. When they had become ceremonially unclean, the Jews had to wash themselves with the "water of cleansing" sprinkled on them by dipping the hyssop in it (Numbers 19). And David compares this outward washing to the inward reality of cleansing in Psalm 51, his great prayer of repentance (vs. 7). The writer of the book of Hebrews testifies that these outward ritual washings were only external regulations that applied "until the time of the new order"; they prefigured what Christ would do in reality (Hebrews 9:10, 13-14).

At the time of John the Baptist, these temple rites were still being carried out. The "water of washing" was still made from water poured over the ashes of a sacrificed heifer, the hyssop was still being dipped in this water and sprinkled on people for ceremonial cleansing. Yet John instituted a new ritual baptism not founded on animal sacrifice. It more clearly pointed forward to the reality of inward purification. No one could claim freedom from the need of John's rite, because though they might be ceremonially clean, all were inwardly unclean. And so those undergoing John's baptism confessed their sins, an acknowledgement of their inward uncleanness.

John's baptism was not only for repentance, but it also brought people under John's headship. They who underwent it were called John's "disciples" (Matthew 11:2, 14:12, Mark 2:18, Luke 7:18, John 1:35). Because of the two-fold nature of John's baptism - both symbolizing repentance and John's headship, he objected to baptizing Jesus. Jesus was the only person to be baptized by John who was not unclean, and who did not confess his sins, for he had none (2 Cor. 5:21, 1 Pet. 2:22, Heb. 4:15). From John's perspective, Jesus did not need it, but Jesus said it was "necessary to fulfill all righteousness" (Matthew 3:14-15). John did not understand that Jesus was the representative head of his people, carefully following all God's laws in their behalf (Romans 5:12-19). (Interestingly it can be argued that in their union with Christ, being clothed with his righteousness, all Christians have undergone John's baptism.)

John's baptism not only had to do with the relationship with an individual to God, but the relationship of the individual to the one baptizing. John rather thought that Jesus should baptize him since John's whole ministry was one of pointing to the one greater than he. That a servant should baptize the master seemed backwards. Indeed Jesus' disciples were baptizing people, and many were "going over to him." (John 3:26, 4:1-2) When John's disciples worried that Jesus' ministry was taking away from John's position, John firmly settled the argument by saying, "He must become greater; I must become less." (John 3:30). This symbolism of headship was carried over with the baptism with water that Jesus' disciples practiced, and (as will be shown in this paper) would more fully be realized -- rather than only symbolized -- in the baptism with the Holy Spirit (1 Corinthians 12:12-13).

Further insight into John's baptism can be gleaned from a parenthetical explanation in Luke chapter 7. Luke states, "because they had been baptized with John's baptism," they acknowledged that God's way is right when they heard Jesus' words. Luke contrasts this response to the response of the Pharisees and experts of the law who "rejected God's purpose for themselves, because they had not been baptized by John" (Luke 7:29-30). The explanation here shows that John's baptism is a one-time event for each person; one either had been baptized or had not been. Additionally, it seems to illustrate the preparatory nature of John's baptism. Those who received it were ready to receive the words of Jesus. Receiving Jesus naturally followed repentance. In admitting sin, the people could see the need for the Savior. In contrast, John strongly rebukes the Pharisees, "who told you to flee from the coming wrath?" (Matt. 3:8), since they were not really repenting of their sins, but instead trusting in their lineage from Abraham (Matt. 3:9).


The Holy Spirit Already at Work before Pentecost

As Evidenced by John the Baptist's Ministry

That some people came to repentance and were ready to accept Jesus because of John's preaching does not indicate their human virtue over against the Pharisees' hypocrisy. Genuine repentance was the work of the Holy Spirit in their lives. Two places illustrate the operation of the Holy Spirit in John's ministry. We see in the angel Gabriel's announcement in Luke 1:15: "And he will be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from his mother's womb." (ESV). In verse 17, Gabriel continues, "he will go on before the Lord in the spirit and power of Elijah, to turn the hearts of the fathers to their children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the righteous --- to make ready a people prepared for the Lord. " The comparison of John's ministry to Elijah's shows that the Spirit's work in John's ministry is a continuation of His operation in the Old Testament era. The Spirit moved people to respond to John in the same way He moved people to respond to other Old Testament prophets. Stephen preaching to the Jews refers to the Holy Spirit's work in the Old Testament, a work that they resisted (Acts 7:51). That the Holy Spirit was already at work before the baptism of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost is key to understanding the nature of the Pentecost event. The Spirit had not been inactive before Pentecost; it was not the starting place of His ministry. Pentecost represented a change in aspects of the nature of the Holy Spirit's ministry.

Jesus also places John's ministry as a continuation of the ministry of the Holy Spirit through the Old Testament prophets. Saying "all the Prophets and the Law prophesied up to John," Jesus draws a dividing line in history. His following statement strengthens the force of this division. No one was greater than John the Baptist but "he who is least in the kingdom of Heaven is greater than he" (Matt. 11:13). This statement can be understood in the following way. The Holy Spirit has been at work from the beginning of history. Under the Old Testament, the Spirit operated in men and brought them to faith, just as in the New Testament (Romans 4:23-24). But the operation of the Spirit in any person in the new Kingdom era is different, greater, fuller even, than the Spirit's work experienced by John, the greatest prophet of the Old Testament era (Hebrews 11:39-40).

Jesus had made these comments after John sent his disciples to ask if Jesus was the Christ. One difference between John the Baptist's followers and those of Jesus is that the New Testament believer knows the truth about Christ. The Apostle John in his first epistle deals with this amazing fact of the believer's life. He writes, "you have an anointing from the Holy One, and all of you know the truth." That truth is the truth about Jesus, for believers are contrasted here with the man who denies that Jesus is the Christ (1 John 2:20-27). John's baptism prepared people to receive Jesus' words. But the anointing of the Spirit is what causes people to know the certainty of the truth about Jesus, to believe and be saved and be numbered as one belonging to the kingdom of heaven in the era of the new covenant.

Saying that even the least believer in the kingdom is greater than the greatest Old Testament prophet does not imply that there are no more prophets after John. Scripture attests so clearly to a continuing office of prophet and gift of prophecy in the Apostolic New Testament church that no specific passage need be cited here. Jesus was merely comparing a common Christian (even the "least in the kingdom of heaven") in the New Testament era to the greatest prophet of the Old Testament era. He was not making a statement denying the further need for teachers or leaders in the church. Some have taken the idea of the "anointing" in 1 John 2:20-27, that the Spirit would lead "into all truth" (John 16:12), and the statement above about the "least in the kingdom of heaven" to mean that the Christian baptized with the Spirit needs no one else, only his Bible. Or some have gone even further to assert that the Christian with the Holy Spirit does not even need a Bible, but can discern all truth internally. But this error directly contradicts the Spirit's own testimony He has given us in the New Testament Scripture. The Holy Spirit has both inspired Scripture, and given spiritual gifts to men in order to teach and preach to others from the Scripture. The Scriptures applied by teaching of elders are what thoroughly equip a man of God, not the Holy Spirit apart from the Scriptures (2 Timothy 3:16-17). The equipping does not happen apart from the Bible. Paul sent Titus to Crete to do the one thing left undone in the churches there, to appoint elders (Titus 1:5). Churches need these leaders. Additionally, Christ gave "... some to be pastors and teachers, to prepare God's people for works of service..." (Eph. 4:11-12). Many other passages could be cited that support the same conclusion, that an individual Christian with the Spirit in him in following the Spirit’s leading will submit himself to the Bible and secondarily to the leaders in the church.

Jesus' statement that even those least in the kingdom of heaven are greater than John the Baptist bears on the meaning of the Pentecost prophecy of Joel 2:28-32. It suggests that the outpouring of God's Spirit leads to something different than Old Testament prophecy. Joel does use Old Testament language related to prophets -- sons and daughters prophesying, old men seeing visions and young men dreaming dreams. However, these Old Testament ways of connecting to God have been eclipsed in the Kingdom era with the baptism of the Spirit. The presence and work of the Lord in the Kingdom era is greater in any Christian than even John, the Old Testament's greatest prophet. Some interpret Joel's prophecy to refer to the prophetic gift, per se. But the universal sweep of Joel's prophecy, the Spirit being poured out on "all flesh," and the use of Hebrew merism of listing pairs of opposites to be all inclusive give it an application to every Christian, more consistent with the idea of Matthew 11:13 discussed above. Since, even in the New Testament era, the prophetic office and gift is limited to only some believers, the universal character of Joel's prophecy again would seem to put it beyond referring to prophecy in the ordinary sense. For interpreters, the meaning of Joel's prophecy will go hand in hand with one's understanding of the baptism of the Spirit.

Even though John is called the greatest prophet of the Old Testament era, John's baptism in itself was incomplete. John the Baptist testified to this. He kept pointing people to the one coming after him, whose sandals he is not worthy to carry (Matt. 3:11) or untie (Mark 1:7, Luke 3:16, John 1:27). People needed to come under the baptism of the one who comes after. The account of the Apostle Paul's meeting with some of John's disciples in Ephesus illustrates the insufficiency of John's baptism (Acts 19:1-7). They had to be baptized again -- this time into the name of Jesus -- and the Holy Spirit came on them at the laying on of Paul's hands, the hands of Jesus' representative. This account does not somehow denigrate John's baptism. On the contrary, it illustrates the effectiveness of John's ministry. These disciples were prepared and ready to receive the Gospel of Jesus. However, it does show subordinate position of John's ministry to that of Jesus.

More could be discussed regarding John's baptism, but here are some conclusions to be drawn from the above passages that are germane to the understanding of Jesus baptizing with the Holy Spirit. John's baptism was done to individuals and no one could hold himself exempt. Unlike temple purification, it was a one-time event (people did not come back every time they sinned to confess and get baptized again); it was an initiation event. It brought people under the ministry of John. In other words, it was a union event. It was a baptism of repentance; people had to acknowledge the truth of their sin. In saying this, we must acknowledge then the corollary that the Holy Spirit was at work in John's ministry to bring people to repentance. It was a culmination of the Old Testament era sphere of the Spirit's activity through his prophets. And finally it was the preparation for the Kingdom.


Jesus Baptizing with the Spirit

That the Holy Spirit was already active in John's ministry highlights the very particular nature of Jesus baptizing with the Holy Spirit. It was not merely some general operation of the Holy Spirit, which was already in effect. In a passage in his first letter to the Corinthians, Paul seems to be speaking to the baptism of the Holy Spirit that John's baptism prefigured and that John prophesied about. Paul begins by saying to the Corinthians, "Do you not know that the wicked will not inherit the kingdom of God?" (1 Corinthians 6:9). Here we see mention of the coming kingdom that John's ministry prepared people for. Paul then goes on to list different kinds of evil wicked people do. Then he sets a sharp contrast in the believer's life in verse 11: "That is what many of you were but..." And he then describes how they are now as Christians. In the Greek, Paul makes the contrast even more strong by repeating alla "but" three times "but you were washed, but you were sanctified, but you were justified." These three things are equivalent to saying that they were inwardly purified and made ready to be in God's presence. Paul finally explains what caused this change from being numbered with the wicked to being clean: this was done to them "in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in/by/with the Spirit of our God" (1 Corinthians 6:11). This passage does not use the word "baptize" but an alternate Greek word for "washing" perhaps to guard against an interpretation of water baptismal regeneration at this point. But in its context of purification at the initiation of a believer's life, this passage speaks to the inward reality for which water baptism is the sign. It can be reasonably interpreted as referring to the baptism with the Spirit, and so I have left the preposition en with alternate wordings. For the same event from the perspective of Jesus one could say Jesus baptizes "with" the Spirit, but from the perspective of the Spirit's purification work one could say a person was washed "by" the Spirit. That this conversion event, itself, is what Jesus does by baptizing with the Spirit will be discussed later.


Timing and the Accompanying Signs at Pentecost Point to Its Redemptive-Historical Nature

In explaining the Pentecost event, Peter tell the Jews that in the state of being "exalted to the right hand of God" is when Jesus received from the Father the promised Holy Spirit and has poured out what they saw and heard (Acts 2:33). Jesus testified that his ascension and glorification must come before the pouring out of the Spirit. "Unless I go away, the Counselor will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you." (John 16:7) The pre-condition of Jesus' glorification for the giving of the Spirit is seen in John 7:39: "Up to that time the Spirit had not been given, since Jesus had not yet been glorified." The conditional nature of the Holy Spirit coming only after Christ arrives at a certain point suggest a definite stage in the progress of the plan of redemption carried out in history.

The signs accompanying the Pentecost event provide further support. They were not merely spectacles to draw spectators, although they did serve that function, too. That these actually allude to very particular Old Testament events and types is illustrative of the redemptive-historical, epoch-changing character of Pentecost.

As a prelude, the curtain in front of the Holy of Holy's was torn in two at Jesus' death (Luke 23:45). This sign symbolically abrogated the Jewish temple worship and heralded the time when all have equal access to the Father through Jesus, to worship him in spirit and in truth (John 4:23). Before, God had put his presence in the Holy of Holies; now the bodies of Christians themselves are God's temple, the temple of the Holy Spirit where God's presence rests (1 Cor. 3:16).

At Pentecost itself, the signs of roaring winds, a loud sound, and tongues of fire hark back to the meeting between God and the Israelites at Mount Sinai and the giving of the Law. The Lord descended on the mountain in fire (vs. 18) and there was a thick cloud, smoke and a loud sound of a trumpet getting louder and louder. (Exodus 19:16-19). Barriers were placed around the mountain at that time to keep people from approaching lest the Lord "break out against them" (Exodus 19:24). Moses in reminding the Israelites of this event said the mountain "blazed with fire" and then later expands on this imagery saying that God is a "consuming fire" (Deut. 4:11, 24). After the Israelites heard the voice of God at that time which they could not bear, they fell back to hearing God through intermediary prophets (Exodus 20:19).

The tongues of fire coming on the disciples' heads show an epochal change from the Old Testament time (Hebrews 12:18-24). Now the law is written on our hearts (Jeremiah 31:33) instead of tablets of stone. Now is a time where God's presence is no longer restricted, where it burns but does not consume, as the burning bush out of which the Angel of the Lord spoke to Moses (Exodus 3:2). The sign of speaking in tongues, while arguable pointing to a reversal of Babel, also signifies a new era where the Gospel will go to every nation, tribe, people and language (Revelation 7:9). Here again is a great epochal change from the era when access to God came only if one was included in the nation of Israel.

The requirement of waiting precisely until Pentecost, itself, the Feast of First-fruits (Acts 1:4, Exodus 23:19), shows the Lord's intent to carefully take into account and put to use the Old Testament types. The disciples who were baptized with the Spirit at Pentecost are the first fruits of the ingathering of the wheat, to which John the Baptist spoke (Matt. 3:12). (Presumably the church universal will celebrate the third major feast of the year, the Feast of Ingathering of the full harvest, when Jesus returns.)

From the particular attention Jesus gives to the precise timing of when he pours out his Spirit, and to the particular signs that accompany it, one can see the special nature of the signs of this event. One would not expect them to be repeated in the experience of every Christian, but rather to serve the whole church in a once-for all historical sense, just as the Mount Sinai experience was not repeatedly given to all Israelites of succeeding generations. Rather, the one time event was repeatedly referred to as something for future generations to remember as an example of the nature of God, the need to fear him and the establishment of His covenant with Israel.

Viewing Pentecost from a redemptive-historical framework gives a ready explanation both for the unique situation of the disciples and for the ordering of the succeeding Pentecost-type events in Acts. Understanding this setting also provides a framework to distinguish between the once-for-all signs related to the event in the history of redemption and the baptism of the Spirit, itself, which came at the same time at Pentecost but has more universal enduring characteristics.


The Unique Experience of the Disciples

The unique situation in the history of redemption explains the experience of the disciples. It accounts for the fact Jesus describes the disciples as "already clean," already believers, even though the Holy Spirit had not come upon them (John 15:3). When Jesus told Zacchaeus "salvation has come to this house" because of his repentance (Luke 19:8-9), we can understand it to be a conversion still under the Old Testament era. This situation existed until Pentecost in its successive stages recorded in Acts. Making the distinction between the Old Testament believer and the New Testament believer will help guard against, on the one hand, the conclusion (e.g. in the case of the Samaritans) that though believing they were somehow not regenerate until the baptism with the Spirit, and on the other hand, the reading that in analogy to the disciples, baptism with the Spirit is necessarily a post-conversion event.

Some think that the disciple's two-stage life experience is normative for Christians today. The implication of this interpetation is that a person becomes a Christian and then after a time, he may go to a higher state when he experiences a baptism of the Holy Spirit which is accompanied by speaking in tongues. At that time he is really empowered. But the solution is to see that the disciples were clean just as believers in Old Testament were clean ("Abraham believed God" Rom. 4:3). They trusted in the promise of the coming Messiah. This situation continued until John the Baptist. Jesus' disciples were in an intermediate situation. The Messiah had come; they had him with them but they were not yet in the New Testament believer's full possession of the Spirit of Christ that would have to wait until Christ's death, resurrection and ascension. So Jesus tells the disciples that the Spirit "dwells with you and will be in you (John 14:17). However one interprets the baptism of the Spirit, all would acknowledge that New Testament Christians have the Holy Spirit already in them (1 Cor. 6:19), in the sense of Jesus' meaning. So the disciples had a distinct two-part experience that Christians today do not have.

The post resurrection pre-ascension incident where Jesus breathed on them and said "receive the Holy Spirit" (John 20:22) should not be accounted as the time they received the Spirit, but should be taken as a prophetic act related to his sending them (vs. 21). For clearly Jesus did not send them out at that time but told them to wait to go out until they are baptized with the Holy Spirit (Acts 1:4-5). To interpret John 20:22 as a literal present reality as opposed to a prophetic future reality would also require that Jesus literally sent the disciples out at that time (John 20:21). This would then imply that Jesus changed his mind or contradicted himself, because he did not send them at that time, but told them to wait. The only resolution can be found in understanding the passage as prophetically pointing the disciples to the Pentecost event and teaching them that being sent out as Jesus' representatives can only happen upon receiving the Spirit.


The Ordering of Events after Pentecost

The uniqueness of the redemptive-historical situation of the Pentecost in Acts can be seen on a group or covenantal level. Acts seems to record several instances of Pentecost event. The first instance is called such -- at Pentecost. But the signs accompanying it, particularly the speaking in tongues and prophesying, came several more times. Some see this as multiple events but it should be viewed instead as one Pentecost event in multiple stages, since the event did not happen multiple times to the same people or the same people group. In this light Sinclair Ferguson quotes Abraham Kuyper's memorable imagery of a city water system being inaugurated but regions of the city being connected in successive stages (Ferguson, p. 85; see also Appendix A below). The stages of the Pentecost signs correspond to an ordering of people groups that Jesus refers to (Acts 1:8). Triple division of peoples into Jews, Samaritans and Gentiles can also be seen in the sending out of the twelve. Jesus restricted them from going "among the Gentiles" or entering "any town of the Samaritans" (Matt. 10:5). Jesus, who told the Sidonian woman, "I was sent only to the lost sheep of Israel" (Matt. 15:24), after his resurrection said the disciples would "be my witnesses in Jerusalem, Judea (The ethnic Jewish world), Samaria (the half-Jews' world), and the ends of the earth (the Gentile world)." These stages connected both with the nature of the Old Testament covenant with the ethnic people-group of Israel as well as with the witness being given by the Apostles.

The baptism of the Spirit came first to the disciples (Acts 2:1-4) (as representatives of the Jews) at Pentecost. We know the disciples were baptized with the Spirit at this event because Jesus specifically described it as such (Act 1:5). Acts does not directly mention whether other Jews who believed had the Pentecost sign experience of speaking in tongues. During Pentecost, the three thousand who believed Peter's message were only said to have been "baptized" (Acts 2:41). In the context the word "baptized" indicates that they were baptized with water into the name of the Triune God, as Jesus commanded in the Great Commission (Matthew 28:19). The rite of water-baptism was done to all those who professed faith, the Samaritans and the Ethiopian Eunuch (Acts 8:12, 36), Saul (Acts 9:18) and the disciples of John in Ephesus (Acts 19:5) and others. Having been baptized, the three thousand were said to be "added to their number," since baptism with water is the inaugural sign of people coming into the church.

However, two things might be cited as evidence to indicate other Jewish Christians at that time may have received the fuller experience of the signs accompanying the baptism of the Spirit.

First, the parenthetical comment in Acts 8 with respect to the Samaritans could be construed to indicate that all the believing Jews had experienced the signs of the baptism of the Spirit. Philip the Evangelist was the first to preach the Gospel to the Samaritans. Many believe and were baptized, but "the Holy Spirit had not yet come upon any of them; they had simply been baptized into the name of the Lord Jesus" (Acts 8:16). One could infer from this lack that the Spirit not coming upon them was an anomaly that the Jews had not before encountered because the Apostles themselves were among them, and so that the Jews all had experienced the signs of the baptism of the Spirit.

A second inference might be drawn from Peter's comment defending his action of admitting Cornelius' Gentile household into full membership of the church (Acts 11:15-17). He said that the Holy Spirit "came on them as he had come on us at the beginning." And Peter therefore concludes "if God gave them the same gift as he gave us, who believed in the Lord Jesus Christ, who was I to think that I could oppose God?" At this point Peter was speaking to "the apostles and the brothers throughout Judea" (Acts 11:1), since these "circumcized believers" criticized him. One could argue that the signs of Holy Spirit's coming had only "come on" the first group of disciples, but it also could be that Peter meant that the entire group spoken to had experienced the signs of the Holy Spirit coming upon them.

As a counterweight to the two points above, it can be argued that the Jerusalem Christians were considering the signs of the Spirit coming upon the first disciples at Pentecost as representative of the Spirit having been poured out on the Jews. Peter's statement that the Spirit "came on us at the beginning" could be understood as only being manifested in those first disciples at Pentecost, but representing all the Jewish Christians. Accounting something that happened to other people as happening to "us" is characteristic of Eastern cultures with a group mentality and would particularly fit Jewish culture rooted in covenantal thinking. Someone from a Western culture with its focus on individualism reading this text might not find this possible interpretation so apparent.


The Sign Accompanying Receiving the Spirit -
Exclusive to the Apostle's Ministry

God did other signs and miracles not only through the Apostles but also other Christians, for instance, Philip, the deacon and evangelist (Acts 8:13). But one sign was reserved for the Apostles only, the laying on of hands to "receive" the Spirit. As such, this sign testified to their Apostleship.

Of all the conversion events recorded in the New Testament, only three directly mention speaking in tongues and prophesying, that of the first disciples (Acts 2:3-4), then Cornelius' household (Acts 10:44), and the disciples of John the Baptist in Ephesus (Acts 19:6-7). It could be inferred that the Samaritans also exhibited these outward signs since they were said to receive the Spirit at the laying on of hands of Peter and John. It was visible enough as an outward sign to make Simon the Sorcerer want to buy the power (Acts 8:18). Paul's conversion, in contrast, was marked by a miraculous restoration of sight, not speaking in tongues or prophesying (Acts 9:17). Many other conversions recorded in Acts also notably lack mention of the Pentecost signs. Additionally, Peter's testimony regarding the Gentiles is consistent with the idea that the signs of the Holy Spirit coming upon them were not a continuous phenomenon for people in the church. "The Holy Spirit came on them as he had come on us at the beginning." Taken this way, the "beginning" Peter refers would not to be the beginning of each believer's life but the beginning of the New Testament church, at Pentecost.


The Last Stage of the Pentecost Signs

The Spirit first came upon Jews, then to half-Jew Samaritans. Acts records only two other instances of the Holy Spirit coming upon people: the Gentile Cornelius together with his whole household (Act 10), and some disciples of John the Baptist living in Ephesus (Acts 19:1-7). The Ephesian disciples of John the Baptist, like Paul, seem to be "as one[s] untimely born" (1 Cor. 15:8). If God had not reserved a group after the Gentiles of Cornelius' household who still would experience this sign, then one clear testimony to Apostleship would not have been available to Paul. At no other place was this said to happen, that the "Holy Spirit came on them and they spoke in tongues and prophesied." The experience of Cornelius' household seems to symbolize the last stage of Pentecost, the going to the Gentiles. The later event in Ephesus seems to be out of place. It is not another stage, but rather shows that John's Baptism was indeed not enough, and that Paul was also included as an Apostle. Though some may conclude that others during the Apostles ministry had the "sign" experience of Baptism of the Spirit, it is clear that with the death of the Apostles, this sign experience at the laying-on of hands was finished. It would be wrong, however to say that the Baptism of the Spirit has ceased.


The Experience Common to All Christians

In examining baptism with the Holy Spirit, one must distinguish between the actual inward reality of the baptism and the outward signs that accompanied it at the Pentecost event in its successive stages. Several passages indicate that the baptism of the Holy Spirit happens to all Christians. Jesus baptizing with the Spirit and fire seems to be the defining event that separates believers from unbelievers, the wheat from the chaff (Matt. 3:12). Grudem does not interact with Matt. 3:12 saying only with regard to Matthew 3:11 along with corresponding passages in the other Gospels, "it is hard to draw any conclusions from these four passages with respect to what baptism with the Holy Spirit really is," (Grudem, p. 766). But not taking into account Matthew 3:12 abruptly cuts off a connected single statement of John the Baptist. Other passages corroborate this understanding. Jesus' statement in John 7, though not using the word "baptism" seems to indicate the baptism of the Spirit is for all believers: "whoever believes in me". The Apostle John then comments that Jesus "meant the Spirit, whom those ... would later receive," and that the Spirit had not been given because Jesus had not been glorified (John 7:38-39). This giving of the Spirit was the baptism of the Spirit Jesus promised to his disciples (Acts 1:5). Joel prophesied that God would pour out his Spirit on "all flesh." Peter applies this prophecy to the Pentecost event, but then also holds out the promise to all coming after who believed: the hearers, their children and those far of, in short "all whom the Lord our God will call" (Acts 2:38-39). Successive events in Acts let the Jewish believers know that God had planned to give the Spirit even to the Gentiles (Acts 11:17).

In the light of Biblical support cited above, one can conclude that 1 Corinthians 12:13 refers to the baptism of the Spirit however one translates the preposition. "For we were all baptized by/with one Spirit into one body ... and we were all given one Spirit to drink." Grudem, Ferguson and Packer agree 1 Corinthians 12:13 speaks of the baptism with the Spirit (Grudem, p. 768; Ferguson, p. 88; Packer, p. 202). This is a key verse that ties baptism with the Spirit to the time of conversion.

Those who hold to Spirit baptism as a post-conversion experience take a more complicated interpretation of this verse, even though the Greek is equivalent in this an every other instance of baptism in/with the Spirit. Lloyd-Jones makes a distinction by translating the phrase in 1 Cor. 12:13 that one is baptized "by the Spirit" at conversion. But where the same phrase is used elsewhere, he translate it that one is baptized "with the Spirit." Regarding the other passages, Lloyd-Jones asserts, "Christ baptizing us with the Holy Spirit... is obviously distinct from and separate from becoming a Christian" (Lloyd-Jones, p. 23, emphasis added). Grudem argues that in making this exegetical distinction, one unnaturally separates off the other six instances of the same Greek phrase (Matt. 3:11, Mark 1:8, Luke 3:16, John 1:33, Acts 1:5, 11:16) (Grudem, p. 767). In recognition of this fact, Bible translators who do use the English word "by" instead of "in" or "with" when they come to translating

1 Corinthian 12:13 will often put a footnote to include the other readings. Presumably from hearing this same objection, Lloyd-Jones in a later sermon takes particular care to show that in this verse the prepositions serves to highlight a causal connection, and that is why many translators end up translating it differently from the other six instances (Lloyd-Jones, p. 330 ff.). But this entire distinction hinges on the assumption that Jesus baptizing with the "element" of the Holy Spirit is necessarily distinct from the Spirit's causal action. In 1 Corithians 12:13, both the "agent" and the "element" are in view. We are baptized "by" the Spirit but are also given the Spirit to "drink." To maintain a distinction between element and agent one must also distinguish the Spirit, himself, coming upon someone in the active sense from someone being baptized with the Spirit. Lloyd-Jones does not consistently make this distinction but holds the two, baptism with the Spirit and the Spirit coming upon someone, as equivalent in Acts 19 (Lloyd-Jones, p.20).

If the baptism of the Spirit is universally experienced by all Christians, but the outward signs were limited to the Apostle's ministry accompanying their laying-on of hands, then the outward signs of tongues and prophecy that had accompanied the inward baptism of the Spirit have ceased along with the deaths of the Apostles. This conclusion does not necessarily speak to the distinct spiritual gifts of tongues and prophecy listed in 1 Corinthians 12:10, unless it could be proved that these gifts also were only given at the laying-on of the Apostles hands. The Pentecost manifestations signify receiving the Holy Spirit at the laying-on of the Apostles hands; in contrast, the latter gifts seem to be apportioned by the Holy Spirit only to some of the Christians among other gifts He gives as a continuing operation in someone who has already received the Spirit (1 Corinthians 12:11). That there are two instances of manifesting the same sign does not mean that the instances are identical, only that the same Spirit is a work in both instances. (Incidentally, this principle can also be used when comparing Pentecost with later revivals in the history of the church.) Whether or not the gifts in a like manner as the signs of tongues and prophecy only did come at the laying-on of the Apostles hands and have ceased with the death of the Apostles must be left to another study.


Coincident Descriptive Terms at Pentecost Do Not Imply Identity

The Scripture uses several terms in connection of the Pentecost event. That these terms were all said to happen at the same time at Pentecost does not then imply that they are all synonymous or interchangeable. They can be used interchangeably when referring in general to the event where they happened, but each term may carry with it some distinctions.

In the New Testament usage, the Holy Spirit "coming upon" a group seems to be synonymous with the outward sign event of speaking in tongues and prophesying. (The other two signs - a loud sound and tongues of fire only happened to the first disciples at Pentecost the day the Spirit was first poured out.) This phrase in English "come upon" is represented by two words in Greek. Acts 1:8 uses epercomai "come upon" whereas the other passages use epipiptw "fall upon" (Acts 8:16, 10:44, 11:15, 11:18, 19:6). They all refer to the Pentecost event (in its stages), but in particular describe what happens when the outward visible signs of speaking in tongues and prophesying are manifested. This usage is consistent with the Greek Septuagint where the Holy Spirit "falls upon" Ezekiel and tells him what to say that he might prophesy (Ezekiel 11:5). In no place is the Spirit said to fall upon people except where tongues and/or prophecy are manifested. As was already noted, this manifestation of prophecy and tongues is distinct from the gifts of prophecy and tongues that are only given to some and are not limited to a specific time but continue as a regular part of a person's ministry. Accordingly, the description in Acts of the Spirit "falling upon" someone refers to the unique redemptive-historical Pentecost event in the time of the Apostles. This sign served to confirm Apostleship: whom Christ was sending as well as to whom they were being sent.

When the Spirit "fell upon" people in the events recorded in Acts, these people were at the same time said to experience several other things. They were also said to have "received" the Spirit (Acts 8:47), to have been "baptized with" the Spirit (Acts 11:16), to have been "filled with" the Spirit (Acts 2:4) and the Spirit to have been "poured out" on them (Acts 10:45). (See the charting of the Pentecost related events appended to this discussion.)

"Receiving the Spirit" seems to be synonymous with "baptism of the Spirit." Its universal character for all believers can be seen in Peter's Pentecost sermon (Acts 2:39), and it comes with belief (Galatians 3:2, 5). But in the instances when the outward sign is visible, one can speak of the person receiving the Holy Spirit as manifested by the outward signs. Such is the usage in Acts 8:15. (One must remember again the distinction between the Old Testament and New Testament era believer.) Baptism or receiving of the Holy Spirit describes something happening to individuals as well as to groups. Additionally, these seem to be inaugural in the life of the believer. No one is ever described as "receiving the Spirit" for a second time. It is a one-time event. Those holding to a separate post-conversion baptism experience still would agree with this identity of terms. (Though Lloyd-Jones does acknowledge the interchangeability of these terms "receiving the Spirit and "being baptized with the Spirit," he does not acknowledge its universal character in the experience of all believers [Lloyd-Jones, p. 21]).

In contrast to believers "receiving" the Spirit only one time, Acts records believers being "filled with" the Spirit in either a characteristic continuing sense or in multiple specific instances. The Greek word, plhrow, is sometimes used to designate the former characteristic nature of a believer (Acts 6:3, 5; Ephesians 5:18), but also is used to designate the latter, for example in Acts 7:55 where Stephen is able to see a vision of heaven. The other Greek word, pimplhmi, likewise has both usages: John the Baptist is said to be "filled with" the Holy Spirit from his mother's womb (Luke 1:15). But this same word describes the event where Paul, "filled with the Holy Spirit" at a particular instance, prophesies blindness for Elymas the sorcerer in Cyprus (Acts 13:9). In either case, these "fillings" are not characteristic of all believers. When used in the continuous sense, they are said to be more characteristic of some believers. Or in the other sense, they happen only at specific times in the lives of some believers. And in each case there is a direct result of this filling: the Holy Spirit empowers believers to do something beyond their human ability. Filled with the Spirit, people speak in tongues as the Spirit enables them, they speak the word of God with boldness, they heal, they see visions, they prophesy and they live godly lives. When the Apostles instruct the Jerusalem Church to choose seven men to take over the deaconal responsibilities, they were to choose men known to be "full of the Spirit" (Acts 6:3). That some believers' lives were characterized by being full of the Spirit implies that other believers' were less so. All received the Spirit, but not all were characteristically "filled with the Spirit." In keeping with this distinction, Paul commands believers to be filled with the Spirit (Ephesians 5:18).

Being filled, then, in the more characteristic sense is yielding one's life and will to the Spirit's control so that one is empowered to do God's will. The converse is quenching (1 Thess. 5:19) and grieving (Eph. 4:30) the Spirit. Being filled with the Spirit is living by the Spirit or keeping in step with the Spirit; it leads to a greater manifestation of the fruit of the Spirit in a believer's life (Galatians 5:16, 22-25). When a believer's life is characterized by being full of the Spirit, the believer then may be used by the Spirit in specific ways, to be empowered at specific times for some particular work. In this way, the Spirit enabled Stephen to see a vision of Jesus sitting on the right hand of God (Acts 7:55). Peter and John, though being unschooled and ordinary men, were able to testify boldly and clearly before the Sanhedrin (Acts 4:8, 13). Paul was able to confront Elymas the sorcerer in Cyprus and pronounce God's doom of blindness on him (Acts 13:9). While Paul, Peter, John and Stephen undoubtedly led lives characterized as full of the Spirit, the Spirit also "filled" them at certain times to enable them to accomplish specific words and deeds. The Scripture's use of this term "filled" causes us to know that God should get the glory. The things said and the deeds done were not done by these men of their own wisdom or strength. That they were described as filled with the Spirit is indicating that the Spirit is the one ultimately and fully responsible for what happened.

Where baptism and filling of the Spirit meet is the Pentecost event. Jesus described this event as the particular time when the disciples would be baptized with the Spirit. And when they were baptized with the Spirit, they were also filled with the Spirit and empowered to speak about the wonderful works of God in local dialects of languages unknown to the disciples themselves. Such marvelous things happened at Pentecost that the fact that it was also a baptism event is sometimes absorbed or lost in the fact of the filling of the Spirit.

Because of the strong focus on receiving power to be witnesses, sometimes the significance of the very fact that Jesus chose to describe what would happen as a "baptism" gets lost. The imagery brought to mind in any Christian circles today by the word "baptism" may detract from its meaning. The imagery is heightened by the description of "pouring out" of Joel's prophecy. People think immersion, or being drenched. And nothing more is thought of the usage of the term "baptism" beyond that. But Biblical usage of the word "baptism" is more specific, and more pregnant than a mere synonym for "drenching." It can refer to the outward ritual washing or to the true internal washing signified. So one could translate what John the Baptist said, "I ritually wash you with water, ... but after me... he will wash/purify you in reality with the Holy Spirit and with fire" (Matt. 3:11). This sense clarifies the connection with John's immediately following reference to the harvesting the wheat verses burning up of the chaff (Matt. 3:12).

The primary significance of the baptism with the Spirit is understood by some as the empowerment to be Jesus' witnesses, and indeed that is what Jesus focused on in telling the disciples to wait for the Holy Spirit. But this is a result of the pouring out of the Spirit, not the core issue. In the Kingdom era, the core issue of baptism with the Spirit is salvation itself. The purification or real inward washing happens when the Spirit comes and applies the redemption accomplished by Jesus to the believer's heart. (It has already been discussed how the disciples were already believers before the baptism with the Spirit because of the anomaly of the transition from the Old to New Testament.) Paul in his pastoral epistle tells Titus to stress this core issue of the meaning of the baptism of the Spirit, quoted in full here:

"But when the kindness and love of God our Savior appeared, he saved us, not because of righteous things we had done, but because of his mercy. He saved us through the washing of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit, whom he poured out on us generously through Jesus Christ our Savior, so that, having been justified by his grace, we might become heirs having the hope of eternal life." Titus 3:4-8

Though a different Greek word for "washing" is used here instead of "baptism", the fact that Paul further describes that God has "poured out" on us generously through Jesus seems to support its meaning to refer to the baptism of the Spirit, as in Acts 2:33. This washing of rebirth (or regeneration) and renewal by the Holy Spirit is the baptism of the Spirit that happens to all believers, the inward reality to which John the Baptist pointed. It is what Jesus described as being "born of the Spirit" (John 3:6,8). Paul uses the same language in Romans 5:5 speaking of the hope that we have because the love of God was "poured out" in our hearts through his Holy Spirit which we have been given. As was discussed earlier, that the Holy Spirit is the agent, in this case of justification, reconciliation and experiencing God's love, does not then restrict this pouring out from describing the event where we are baptized "with" the Spirit. From the fact that Jesus indeed baptizes with the Spirit --- whom He received from the father and poured out after his ascension and glorification (Acts 2:33) --- flows all the other experiences of the Spirit exhibited in New Testament believers: their filling and empowering, their bold witness, their holy lives, their performing signs and wonders, and their speaking in tongues and prophesying.

The baptism of the Spirit, accompanied by all the miraculous signs, had an inaugural sense in the life of the church at Pentecost, but also has an inaugural sense in the life of every believer, in this case accompanied by the signs of faith and repentance. It is the giving of the presence of the Spirit of Christ, inaugurating in the person the new covenant relationship with God. And by receiving the Spirit, believers receive the deposit guaranteeing the full redemption to come (Ephesians 1:14). They receive the one at work in them to will and act according to God's good purpose (Philippians 1:13). In short, they receive nothing less than the application of the redemption accomplished by Christ.


A Comparison with Other Interpretations of Baptism with the Spirit

In his book, Baptism with the Spirit, Eaton surveys six interpretations of the baptism with the Spirit, only one of which is in agreement with the above conclusions.

Eaton calls the first, "the sacramental interpretation" (Eaton, p. 18). It is the view that the baptism with the Spirit is closely linked with the rite of baptism with water. This view does associate Spirit baptism with regeneration in the believer as the position taken above by this paper, but goes a step further to then associate regeneration with water baptism. In doing so, this view fails to make the Biblical distinction between the covenant sign and the thing signified (Romans 4:11).

The second view Eaton describes is to regard baptism with the Spirit "as an inseparable part of Christian conversion, but not a conscious experience" (pp. 19-20). Eaton's restricting baptism as "not a conscious experience" strays from the point of Richard Gaffin, whom Eaton cited as holding this view. Gaffin's emphasis is to keep the experiences at Pentecost from being viewed as normative which would "tend to lead down the wrong track." Gaffin's argument cited here would not contest the consciously felt conversion experiences of Whitfield or Wesley. Eaton's second category might be better stated: baptism with the Spirit is an inseparable part of Christian conversion which is not of necessity a conscious experience except in the internally felt evidence of one having a new and believing heart. Taken this way, this understanding is in accord with the position presented in this paper.

The fourth position as Eaton classifies it diverges from the second in stating that baptism of the Spirit is "a definite conscious experience without which conversion has not taken place" (pp. 21-22). Eaton cites the early positions of John Wesley (1714-1770) and George Whitfield (1703-1791) as well as the modern position of James Dunn (p. 24). In the evidence Eaton cited, however, though the emphasis of these men is on a consciously experienced conversion, it does not imply of necessity that at conversion all baptisms with the Spirit must be consciously experienced. Accordingly this position can be combined with the restated second position that Spirit baptism is an inseparable part of conversion, but not of necessity a conscious experience.

The third, fifth and sixth positions (pp. 20-32) all do not make the distinction discussed in this paper between baptism with the Spirit and being filled with the Spirit. Easton describes the third as "a post-conversion enduement of power which is non-experiential by nature" (p. 20). F. B. Meyer (1847-1929) is cited as having this view. The fifth is that Spirit baptism is "primarily a gift of holiness" held by modern holiness churches (p. 25). In this view "purification" is separated from regeneration and viewed as a post-conversion experience. It misses the point of the already-not yet aspect of redemption in Paul's theology. In the same passage where Paul says that the Corinthians were already sanctified at conversion (1 Cor. 6:11), he then goes on to expose the sins that they who had been sanctified were doing. John Murray deals thoroughly with this difference between definitive and progressive sanctification (Murray, Chapter VII). The sixth approach is an experience "which was an enduement with power to enable service" (p. 27). This position holds baptism as both experiential and distinct from conversion. Eaton cites Dwight L. Moody (1837-1899) and Reuben A. Torrey (1856-1928) and D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones as having this view.

In the framework of this paper, an experience of either power or greater holiness both can fall under the Biblical description of being filled with the Spirit. The position presented in this paper is that this filling can only happen in the present age if the Spirit is present in a believer's life, that is, if the person has already been baptized with the Spirit. This assertion is of logical not temporal nature. The baptism and filling could happen at the same time, as is the case of the disciples at Pentecost.


The Implications of the Baptism with the Spirit

In summary of the above discussion: Baptism with the Spirit first happened at Pentecost, but is inaugural in the life of every believer. The first Christians were baptized in a spectacular manner; Christians today partake of the same baptism but not accompanied by the outward manifestations of prophecy and tongues. The continuing and universal signs of the baptism of the Spirit are repentance and faith. Every Christian has been baptized with the Spirit when they first believe. It can be described as "receiving" the Spirit. It is a purification, definitive sanctification. It brings God's presence with us and in us. It is a union event, bringing people under the headship of Christ as the Last Adam. It is the commencement of the application of the redemption accomplished by Christ, which will reach full consummation at Christ's return. It is the giving of the presence of the Spirit of Christ, inaugurating in the person the new covenant relationship with God. Jesus baptizing people with the Spirit is the assurance that guarantees their eternal inheritance. It is the means by which Jesus gathers his redeemed. From it outworks all the empowerment to live the new life of the kingdom of heaven. This is what the disciples lacked and waited for.

Christians, then, should not seek a second "baptism of the Spirit" experience. They all have already been baptize with the Spirit. This is their comfort, the evidence of their redemption and reconciliation to God, and their hope of the glory to come. In the historical sense, the Spirit has come at Pentecost. But also for each believer, the Spirit has come, has been poured out on them.

The call of Scripture now is for Christians to work out the implications of that salvation, to seek to be filled with the Spirit, His fruit ever more evident in their lives. Christians should look to the Spirit to empower them to a bold witness in the faith, to take the Gospel of Jesus to the ends of the earth as we await the return of Jesus in judgement and glory and await the full redemption of out bodies. The Spirit not only is a deposit making a guarantee to us that we are Christ's, but also guarantees to Jesus that not one will be lost of all those who have been given to him. He is the guarantee that believers will persevere to the end, that those who have been called, justified and sanctified will be glorified.

The Spirit is ever at work in the church. In times of apostasy and coldness (as in the times of the judges in Israel), the Spirit may save by many or by few, raising up men to faithfully preach the Word, and through their ministry the Spirit revives and expands the church. The New Testament era was a time of revival and expansion; and one can see many instances in the history of the church. From these experiences, some have sought to find identity with the disciples' experience of the pouring out of the Spirit at Pentecost. But the identity is in the One at work, the Holy Spirit. Because he was poured out at Pentecost, he is present to intervene and revive the church. He is present to convict and guide Christians. He is present to work a new creation in people with dead hearts. He is present, and because of this, Christians should ever seek a greater measure of the Spirit's work in their own lives and in the church.


Appendix A
Pentecost Event Stages & Echoes Charted Through Acts

On one occasion, while he was eating with them, he gave them this command: 'Do not leave Jerusalem, but wait for the gift my Father promised, which you have heard me speak about. For John baptized with water, but in a few days you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit.' --- Acts 1:4-5 (NIV)


Appendix B


Eaton, Michael, Baptism with the Spirit: the teaching of Martin Lloyd-Jones, published by Intervarsity Press, Leicester, England, © 1989

Ferguson, Sinclair, The Holy Spirit, published by Intervarsity Press, Downers Grove, IL, © 1996

Grudem, Wayne, Systematic Theology, published by Zondervan, Grand Rapids, © 1994

Lloyd-Jones, D. Martyn, The Baptism and Gifts of the Spirit, published by Baker Books, Grand Rapids, MI, © 1984, 1985, 1994 Bethan Lloyd-Jones

Murray, John, Redemption Accomplished and Applied, published by Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, © Eerdmans 1955

Packer, J. I., Keep in Step with the Spirit, published by Intervarsity Press, Leicester, England, © 1984



Note 1: Unless otherwise indicated all Scripture quotations are taken from the New International Version.

Note 2: Unless otherwise indicated specific argument were developed from Scripture by the author before surveying the literature cited in this bibliography, though it might at some cases happen to parallel points that others have made on the subject. The general connection between the Sinaitic Covenant and Pentecost, however, was first brought to the attention of the author when he heard a sermon given by Rev. Tim Keller at Redeemer Presbyterian Church of New York City some ten to fifteen years ago, though which specific sermon it was cannot now be cited.


Appendix C

Index of Scripture Citations


3:2 p. 8

19:16-19 p. 8

19:24 p. 8

20:19 p. 8

23:19 p. 9

Numbers 19 p. 2


4:11 p. 8

4:24 p. 8

23:14 p. 2

Psalm 51:7 p. 2

Ezekiel 11:5 p. 15

Joel 2:28-32 pp. 6, 13, 17

Jonah 3:10 p. 2


3:2 p. 2

3:6 p. 2

3:8-9 p. 3

3:11-12 pp. 2, 3, 5, 12, 13, 16

3:14-15 p. 3

10:5 p. 9

11:2 p. 2

11:13 pp. 4, 5

14:12 P. 2

15:24 p. 9

28:19 p. 10


1:7 p. 5

1:8 pp. 1, 13

2:18 p. 2


1:15 p. 3, 15

3:16 pp. 1, 5, 13

7:18 p. 2

7:29-30 p. 3

19:8-9 p. 8

23:45 p. 7


1:27 p. 5

1:33 p. 13

1:35 p. 2

3:6,8 p. 17

3:26 p. 3

3:30 p. 3

4:1-2 p. 3

4:23 p. 7

7:38-39 pp. 7, 12

14:17 p. 10

15:3 p. 8

16:7 p. 7

16:12 p. 5

20:21-22 p. 9


1:4-5 pp. 2, 8, 9, 12, 13

1:8 p. 9, 14

2:1-5 p. 10, 14

2:33 p. 7, 17

2:38-39 p. 12, 14

2:41 p. 10

4:8, 13 p. 15

6:3,5 p. 15

7:51 p. 4

7:55 p. 15

8:12, 36 p. 10

8:13 p. 11

8:15-16 p. 10, 14

8:18 p. 11

8:47 p. 14

9:17-18 pp. 10,11

10 p. 11

10:44-45 p. 11, 14

11:1 p. 10

11:15-17 pp. 2, 10, 12, 13, 14

11:18 p. 14

13:9 p. 15

19:1-7 pp. 5, 10, 11, 14


4:3 p. 9

4:11 p. 17

4:23-24 p. 4

5:5 p. 17

5:12-19 p. 3

1 Corinthians

3:16 p. 7

6:9-11 p. 6, 18

6:19 p. 9

12:10-11 p. 13

12:12-13 pp. 3, 12

15:8 p. 11

2 Corinthians 5:21 p. 2


3:2,5 p. 14

5:16, 22-25 p. 15


1:14 p. 17

4:11-12 p. 5

4:30 p. 15

5:18 p. 15

Philippians 1:13 p. 17

1 Thessalonians 5:19 p. 15

2 Timothy 3:16-17 p. 5


1:5 p. 5

3:4-8 p. 16


4:15 p. 3

9:10, 13-14 p. 2

11:39-40 P. 4

12:18-24 p. 8

1 Peter 2:22 p. 2

1 John 2:20-27 p. 4

Revelation 7:9 p. 8