English -Taiwanese Lexicon
With Mandarin glosses and Notes on Korean-Taiwanese Homology
by Rev. Joel H. Linton 印主烈 牧師
This data is being accumulated from multiple sources, among them: Taiwanese Lexical Change and Variation by Li Khin Hoa* (Ching-An Li, Ph.D.); English Amoy Dictionary & Taiwanese-English Dictionary & Beginning Taiwanese by Maryknoll Language Institute; A Dictionary of Southern Min by Bernard L.M. Embree (This book was banned by the KMT regime in the 1970's and so it had to be published in Hong Kong and smuggled into Taiwan. The Taipei Language Institute has just republished it in the past year.); as well as discussions with various Taiwanese including my wife, Judy.
The notes on Korean homology come from my own observation as I continue to hear Taiwanese words that remind me of the Korean words I learned as a child.


This lexicon will gradually be expanded over time.

You may need to change your web browser to "UTF-8" under "VIEW: Character Set or Text Encoding"
drop down menu in order to see the Chinese character usage and Mandarin and Korean phonetic alphabets.

Where the Mandarin word is different from Taiwanese usage, both the different character and phonetic markings are given. Where the character usage is the same, only the phonetic markings are given.
Finally, you may occasionally see in {brackets} a comparison of a Korean root that shares consonant-vowel homology with Taiwanese. This probably derives from the Tang Dynasty and earlier when the Korean Confucian scholars studied in China and used the contemporary (or classical) Chinese pronunciation of Chinese loan words in Korean. Mandarin has diverged from the Classical Chinese in many ways that are still preserved both in the Chinese-roots used in Korean as well as in Taiwanese. Many words in Taiwanese have glottal stop, consonant and vowel homology with Korean words containing Chinese roots. Likewise, actual Chinese character and word usage parallels Classical Chinese in these two language, but not in Mandarin. Mandarin again proves to have diverged. For example, the word for book: "Chheh" in Taiwanese and "Chek" in Korean use the original character 冊 but Mandarin uses 書

Tone marks:

1 (none); 2 (/); 3 (\); 4 (-h,-k,-p,-t); 5 (^); 7 (-); 8 (‘)
nasalize vowel (*)

"=M" : the same character usage in Mandarin although could be borrowed via Japanese from Classical Chinese or directly from Classical Chinese (source: Chin-An Li)

about, approximately: [1] tāi-iok [tai-~iok] 大約 ﹦M ( ㄉㄚˋ ㄩㄝ ) [2] chha-put-to 差不多 ﹦M
above: [1] téng 頂 ; [2] siōng 上 = M (ㄕㄤˋ)
action, act, move: oa̍h-tāng [oa'h~tang-]
addicted, addiction: tiâu-tiâu {as in the sentence: Poa̍h-kiáu chhin-chhiūⁿ teh chia̍h to̍k ê tiâu-tiâu. "Gambling is like addiction to drugs."}
adjust: tiâu-chéng
after: [1] āu 後 , [2] āu-lâi 後來
again, also, and (connective for verbs and modifiers), another, further, more: koh 復 {literary pronunciation JI = Ho̍k} (some use 佫) ; M= 再
alive, living: oa̍h [oa'h] 活 {JI= Hoa̍t} [e.g. oa'h~e^ lang^ "live person" ; chhoe~oah' lang^ "find live person"]
also, even: [1] ia̍h [iah'] 亦 = M ( ㄧˋ ) [2] koh 佫
and/with: kah , kap 佮 (noun, pronoun, verb, verbal clause connective -- does not connect adverbs or adjectives); M= 和 ,及 , 跟 , 與
angels: thian-sài [thiam~sai\] ; thiⁿ-sài [thi*~sai\] (do not confuse with sái [sai/] "dung")
arrive, reach: kàu [kau\] 到 = M ( ㄉㄠˋ )
at/in/on: (location) [1] tī 佇 [from Austronesian: di (Malay/Indonesian) di/ (Proto-Austronesian)] [2] tiàm-tī [tiam\~ti-]; M= 在 (ㄗㄞˋ)
attributive particle: ê [e^] ; M = 的
autumn (season): chhiu-thiⁿ 秋天
baby, infant: [1] eⁿ-á 嬰仔 [2] âng-eⁿ-á 紅嬰仔 (newborn) [3] eng-hâi 嬰孩 [4] eng-jî 嬰兒 =M ( ㄧㄥ ㄦˊ )
baby fat: hàng-leng (used to describe an infant when a nursing infant grows well with lots of fat rolls; other words for "fat" not used)
barbecue (on grill) hang-bah ; M=烤肉
be in/on/at: (location) tiàm-tī
beer: [1] bí~luh (from Japanese -- phonetic rep. of English "beer" -- no Chinese character) [2] be̍h-á-chiú 麥仔酒 ; M= (ㄆㄧ 酒)
behind: āu-bīn 後面 = M
beloved: .-thiàⁿ-ê [so./~thia*\~e^]
benefit: hó-chhù
black: o͘-sek 烏色 (black color) ; M = 黑色 ( ㄏㄟ ˇㄙㄜˋ)
boil: sa̍h
bold, daring, defiant: toā-táⁿ [toa-~ta*/] 大膽 (literally: "big guts")
bones: kut-thâu [kut~thau^] (commonly used) 骨頭
book: chheh 冊 ; M = 書 ( ㄕㄨ ) {Korean: "chek" 책 , and using the same Chinese character as Taiwanese}
brothers: hiaⁿ-tī brothers 兄弟 ; M= 弟兄 ( ㄉㄧˋㄒㄩㄥ)
building - commercial/office : pān-kong tōa-lâu 辦公大樓
building/apartment - residential : khiā-ke 企家 ; M= 住家
carry (object in arms): mo͘h
casino: kiáu-keng 賭間
catch (w/ hook e.g. fish) tiò 釣
challenge: thiau-chiàu
chicken: [1] ke 雞 = M ( ㄐㄧ ) [2] cháu-soaⁿ-ke 走山雞, páng-soaⁿ-ke放山雞 (free-range chicken) [3] ke bah 雞肉 (chicken meat)
child, children: gín-á [gin/~a/] 囝仔 ; M= 孩子
chilly, cold: [1] kôaⁿ 寒 [koa^*] (common); [2] chhe*~chhin\ (uncommon) or ; [3] léng (from Mand. 冷)
close: koai* 關 = M ( ㄍㄨㄢ )
clothes: sa*
coffee: ka~pi 咖非 = M ( ㄎㄚ ㄈㄟ )
cold: [1] kôaⁿ 寒 ; [2] léng (from Mand. 冷)
cold weather: kôaⁿ-lâng 寒人 [koa^*~lang^]
color: sek 色, sek-chhái 色彩
come upon, descend: lîm-kàu [lim^~kau\] 臨到 ; M= 降臨 ( ㄐㄧㄤˋ ㄌㄧㄣˊ) {Korean also pronounces 臨 "lim" 림}
comfort, console ; consolation: an-uì 安慰
comfortable: an-lo̍k 安樂
The Comforter; Paraclete: An-uì-chía 安慰者
Communist: Kiōng-sán-chú-gī
control, restrict, restrain: khòng-chè
corrupt tham-ù {e.g. tham-ù ê chèng-hú = corrupt government officials}
cross, look over: oa̍t (越 ?)
crossing guard: tio̍h sió-sim jî tông 著小心兒童; M= 當心兒童
cry: khàu 哭
curse, swear: [1] chiù 咒 = M (ㄓㄡˋ) [2] chiù-cho./ (V, N) curse 咒 詛 = M ( ㄓㄡˋ ㄗㄨˇ )
dawn: [1] thàu-chá [2] earlier than dawn -- just starting to turn from dark to gray is called-- phah-phú kng
death: si/ 死 =M ( ㄙˇ)
deceive, trick, lie: phiàn-lâng { as in: "kā lâng phiàn-.khì"}
dehumidifier: tî-sip-ki
delight, joy: hoaⁿ-hí 歡喜
determination, resolution: koat-sim 決心 =M ( ㄐㄩㄝˊ ㄒㄧㄣ)
died, has died: (polite expression) i khi/~a 伊去了 (literally: he went) ; M= 他走了
drink: lim (TW combine 口 + 林 into one character)
drugs (illicit) to̍k-phín
dull: tun 鈍 ( antonym= lāi 利= "sharp")
Easter: Koh~oa̍h Cheh {PI} (Literally: resurrection holiday) 復活節 {JI = Ho̍k-hoa̍t-chiat }
eat: [1] chia'h (now use 食) [2] si't 食 ; M= 吃 () {Korean: "shik" 식 using 食 }
election: soan/~ki/ 選舉 (from Jap.) =M
elder, senator: tiúⁿ-ló 長老 = M
elder, elderly person, senior: lāu-lâng 老人 = M ( ㄌㄠˇㄖㄣˊ )
elders, former generation: chiân-pòe 前輩 = M ( ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄅㄟ ˋ )
emphasize: kiông-tiāu
employee, staff: chit~oan^ 職員 (from Jap.) =M
encouragement, encouraging word: an-uì ê oē 安慰ê話 (comforting word)
everyone: ta̍k-ê 逐ê [ta'k~e^] ; M = 大家 (NOTE: there is a common error in equating the Mandarin and Taiwanese word but they are different. Pronouncing the Mandarin word in Taiwanese would be "tai-~ke" derived from the words "large/greater" and "family". Just like the English word, "everyone", the correct Taiwanese word ta̍k-ê comes from the two words: ta̍k meaning "all/every" and ê meaning "unit/one". )
environment; circumstance; surrounding: khoân-kéng 環境 (from Jap.) =M {as in: Chit ê khoân-kéng sī chin kiān-khong-.ê.}
exhortation: kó͘-lē ê oē
experiment: si̍t-giām 實驗 (when the result will be unknown)
eye: bak'~chiu 目睭
family, household: ke 家 = M ( ㄐㄧㄚ)
faith: sìn-gióng
fall (season): chhiu-thiⁿ 秋天
fat: [1] tōa-kho͘-ê (The word tōa-kho͘ literally means "large circumference" and kho͘ specifically refers to the metal bands that circle around the old wooden buckets or whiskey barrels and hold the pieces of wood together.); [2] pûi-ê
fat, healthy (infant): chin hàng-leng "developed baby fat from nursing"
father-in-law: tiūⁿ-lâng 丈人
feet: kha
fever, has a little fever, has a temperature: hang-hang {sio-khoàⁿ hang-hang} temperature is a little bit warm, feverish
feverish, not in right mind: hang-hang {Chit ê lâng hang-hang.} (Hang = grill, heat over coals.)
filial: iú-hàu [iu/~hau\]
first of all, before: tāi-seng [tai-~seng] 大先 ; M= 首先
fish (verb), catch with hook: tiò hî 釣魚
fish - freshwater: [1] chiáⁿ-chuí-hî (not-salty water fish); [2] khe-hî 溪魚 (river fish)
fish - saltwater: [1] kiâm-chuí-hî (salty-water fish); [2] hái-hî 海魚 (ocean fish)
flower: hoe
forbid: kìm-chí 禁止 {The Korean word 금치 "kum-chi" shows a consonant-vowel homology with Taiwanese but not with Mandarin}
force, oppress: ap-pek 壓迫
forever: éng-oán
forgive: [1] sià-bián [sia\~bian/] 赦免 = M ( ㄕㄜˋ ㄇㄧㄢˇ ) [2] jiâu-sià [3] khoan-iông
fragrant flower: phang~hoe
fruit: koe/~chi/ 果籽 (sometimes written 果子) ; M = 水果 ( ㄕㄨㄟˇ ㄍㄨㄛˇ )
gambling: poa̍h-kiáu 博賭
give: hō. [ho.-] 互 ; M = 給 ( ㄍㄟˇ )
glad: khoài-lo̍k 快樂
gladness: khoài-lo̍k 快樂
go: khì 去 =M
good: hó 好 =M
gorge (of river): khe-khàm
Gospel: hok-im 福音
gray (color): phú
great-grandchildren: kan-á-sun
grill (meat): hang-bah (a newly established cultural activity during the mid-autumn festival in Taiwan)
grow, live, growing, living: seng-tióng 生長 {[verb] as in the sentence: Góa ǹg-bāng in seng-tióng ê khoân-kéng sī chin kiān-khong-.ê.}
grow up: tōa-hàn {[verb] as in the sentence: Góa hi-bāng góa ê gín-á tī Tâi-oân tōa-hàn. I hope my children can grow up in Taiwan.}
guide, lead: chhōa [chhoa-] 導
happy: [1] hoaⁿ-hí 歡喜 (or pleased), [2] khoài-lo̍k 快樂 (or glad) [3] hoan-lo̍k 歡樂 (or merry) [4] hí-lo̍k 喜樂 (or joyful) [5] hok~khi\ 福氣 (or lucky) = M ( ㄈㄨˊ ㄑㄧˋ )
happiness: [1] hok-lo̍k 福樂 ; M=福祿 , [2] khoài-lo̍k 快樂, [3] hí-lo̍k 喜樂
have, there is/are : ū 有 =M ( ㄧㄡˇ )
head: thâu-khak 頭殼
health: kiān-khong 健康
healthy: kiān-khong-.ê
help: pang-chān 幫助
here: chia 遮 (note: no tone sandhi) ; M = 這裡
holy: sèng [seng\] 聖 = M ( ㄕㄥ ˋ)
horse: bé 馬 =M
house, residence: [1] chhù 厝 ; M = 家, 房子 ㄈㄤˊㄗˇ [2] tau 兜 (home) [3] ka-têng 家庭
how much? lōa-chē TW= 若多 ; M = 多少 ( ㄉㄨㄛ ㄕㄠˇ) {The literary pronunciation of 若 is Jio̍k and 多 is To}
human trafficking, slave trade: jîn-kháu ê bé-bē 人口ê買賣
I, me : [pronoun] goa/ 我 or 吾 ; M = 我
idolatry: [1] pài siâ-sîn 拜邪神 (worship of perverted/evil gods) ; [2] pài ngó͘-siōng 拜偶像 (worship of idols/statues)
if: nā [na-] 若 , nā-sī [na-~si-] 若是 ; M = 如果 ( ㄖㄨˇ ㄍㄨㄛˇ ) {The literary pronunciation of 若 is Jio̍k}
important, special: te̍k-pia̍t [te'k~pia't]
in/on/at: (location) [1] tī 佇 [from Austronesian: di (Malay/Indonesian) di/ (Proto-Austronesian)] ; M= 在 (ㄗㄞˋ)
in front: thâu-chêng 頭前 ; M= 前面
in-laws: • chheⁿ-ḿ 生姆 or originally written 青姆 means a son or daughter's mother-in-law. ; M=親家母 ; • chhin-chiâⁿ 親情 relative by marriage, in-laws. Mandarin uses a different word: 親戚
intelligent: chhong~bêng
interesting: chhù-bī [very interesting: chia*-chhù-bī]
is: sī [si-] 是 =M
Jews: Iû-thài-lâng
joy, delight: hoaⁿ-hí 歡喜
joyful: hí-lo̍k 喜樂
king: ông 王 = M ( ㄨㄤˊ )
kingdom, country: kok 國 = M ( ㄍㄨㄛˊ ) {Korean: "kuk" 국 similar to Taiwanese pronunciation}
know (personally), be acquainted with: se̍k-sāi
lie, deceive, trick: phiàn-lâng { as in: "kā lâng phiàn-.khì"}
life-long, life-time, one's whole life: chi̍t-sì-lâng 一世人 ; M = 一生 ( ㄧ ㄕㄥ ) [Note: lâng 人 in this case represents the man's life, as in English use of the word "the crown" represents the king and his reign in addition to the concrete meaning of the thing put on a king's head.]
like, similar to, as, just as, : chhin-chhiū* [chhin~chhiu*-] 親像 ; M = 好像 ( ㄏㄠˇ ㄒㄧㄤˊ ) {Korean uses 親 "chhin" in the word for friend, "chhin-ku" 친구 }
loft (of a home...): pòaⁿ lâu-á
lotus (flower): liân-hoe 蓮花
lotus (seed/food for eating): liân-chí 蓮子
lucky: hok~khi\ 福氣 = M ( ㄈㄨˊ ㄑㄧˋ )
machismo: piàng-piàng-kiò
mafia, organized crime: o͘-siā-hōe 烏社會 (literally: black society); Mandarin= 黑社會
man: [1] lâng [lang^] 人 (originally 儂 )= M ( ㄖㄣˊ ) ; [2] by extension -- represents the life of man (like the usage of the word "the crown" represents the king and his reign)
manifest: tio'h 著 = M ( ㄓㄨˇ) {Korean pronounces character "chio" 저 }
may (it be): goān [goan-] 願
meat: bah 肉 = M ( ㄖㄡˋ)
meeting, council, conference, session: hōe-gī 會議 = M ( ㄏㄨㄟˋㄧ ˋ)
meeting room: hōe-gī-sek 會議室 = M ( ㄏㄨㄟˋㄧ ˋㄕˋ)
merry: hoan-lo̍k 歡樂
mine: ó͘
moon: goe̍h 月 , goe̍h-niû 月娘 (considered female)
mother: lāu-bú
mother-in-law: tiūⁿ-ḿ 丈姆
move, movement, to move: tín-tāng [e.g. chhui/ tin/~tang- "hands can move"]
move away: sóa-cháu
Mr.: sian~si* 先生 = M ( ㄒㄧㄢ ㄕㄥ)
must, have to: [1] tio̍h-aì 著愛 [2] tio̍h 著 [3] aì 愛 ; M= 必須 ( ㄅㄧˋ ㄒㄩ ), 須要 ( ㄒㄩ ㄧㄠˋ )
must not, don't: [1] bo̍h-tit 莫得 [2] m̄-thang 毋 ?
must not be: bōe-tit
name: miâ [mia^] 名 = M ( ㄇㄧㄥˊ)
nation: kok-ka 國家< br> need/require/cost: ài [ai\] 愛 ; M= 要 (ㄧㄠˋ) , 需要 , 必須 ( ㄅㄧˋ ㄒㄩ )
neighbor, neighboring: [1] chhù-piⁿ 厝邊 [2] chhù-piⁿ-á 厝邊仔 (surrounding area) ; M= 鄰居
not: m̄ 毋 ; M = 不 ( ㄅㄨˋ )
now, right now: chím-á 今仔 (sometimes spelled as "chit-má" or "chím-má) ; M= 現在
office: [1] pān-kong-sek 辦公室 ; [2] kong-si 公司
offspring, seed, son: kiáⁿ 子 [Literary Pronunciation = chú from Classical Chinese] ; = M ( ㄗˇ )
often: tiāⁿ-tiāⁿ 定定 ; M = 常常
open: khui 開 = M ( ㄎㄞ )
opera, Taiwanese: koa-á-hì 歌仔戯 (no Mandarin equivalent) (Major song motifs?: tōa-tiāu, pōe-su-tiāu, cha̍p-liām-tiāu, khàu-tiâu-á.)
opportunity, chance: ki-hōe 機會 ;
oppress, force: ap-pek 壓迫
organized crime, mafia: o͘-siā-hōe 烏社會 (literally: black society); Mandarin= 黑社會
other, others pa̍t {e.g. pa̍t-ê other thing;pa̍t-lâng other person/people}
overcast (sky): o͘-im-thiⁿ 烏陰天
ox: gû 牛 =M
pants, trousers: [1] khò͘ (measure word: nia/ ) [2] shorts: te/~kho.\ [3] long pants: tng^~kho.\ [4] jeans: gu^~a/~kho.\
peaceful, at peace: an-lo̍k 安樂
pleased: hoaⁿ-hí 歡喜 (or happy)
police, policeman: kéng-chhat (Ncom)
pottery: hui-á pray, prayer: ki-tó [ki~to/] 祈禱 ; M = 禱告 ( ㄉㄠˇㄍㄠˋ ) {Korean: "ki-to" 기도 using 祈禱 like Taiwanese}
pride: kiáu-ngo͘
probably: tāi-khài [tai-~khai\] 大概 = M ( ㄉㄚˋ ㄍㄞˋ)
quite: [intensifier] chiah 即
rainbow: [1] kheng (or chhut-kheng); [2] chhái-hông 彩虹 (from Mandarin)
really, truly: chin~chià* 真正 = M ( ㄓㄣ ㄓㄥˋ ) {Korean has a similar pronunciation to Taiwanese "chin-cha" 친 차 )
rest, break: hioh~khun\ 歇 ?
resurrection: koh~oa'h 復活 [literally: again alive]
road: lō͘ 路
road block, block the way: lō͘-pà 路霸
run: [1] cháu 走 ; M= 跑 (ㄆㄠˇ) [2] cháu chhut-khì 走出去 (run out, go out) [3] cháu chhut-lâi 走出來 (run out, come out) [NOTE: In Mandarin, 走, means "to walk", NOT "to run".]
Sabbath Day: An-hioh-ji't 安歇日
saliva: chhùi-noaⁿ
same, the same: kang-khoán [kang~khoan/]
satisfaction: boán-chiok 滿足
school: ha̍k-hāu [ha'k~hau-] 學校 (from Jap.) (Nloc) =M
see, look: khoà* [khoa*\] 看 =M
shell: khah
sick: [1] bô-tú-hó 無抵好 (euphemism - not yet fully well); M= 不怎麼好 [2] phòa-pēⁿ (ill)
set aside work, take the trouble to: poah-kang 撥空 = M ( ㄅㄛ ㄎㄨㄥˋ )
sexual crimes: sek-chêng
sharp: lāi 利 ( antonym= tun 鈍 = "dull")
sit: chē [che-] 坐 = M
sorry, be sorry, express regrets: sit-lè [sit~le\] 矢禮 (often said by repeating two or three times in succession) {NOTE: the Korean language's polite form of saying sorry shares the same root: 矢禮 "sil-lye ha-da" 실례하다}
spin, nice-sounding words: hó-thiaⁿ-oē
spring (season): chhun-thi* 春天 = M (ㄔㄨㄣ ㄊㄧㄢ )
so (much): [intensifier] chio'k 足
stable (not volatile, not fluctuating): pêng-ún
steal: [1] thau-mo͘h--khì (secretly carry away something heavy in arms...)
strive, work hard: [1] ló.-la̍t [lo./~la't] 勞力 {KOREAN pronunciation and Chinese Character usage is like that of Taiwanese: lo.-lyok 로력 ; character usage also in Hakka} [2] kut-la̍t 骨力 [3] nó.-le̍k 努力 = M (ㄋㄨˇ ㄌㄧˋ) {KOREAN pronunciation is like that of Taiwanese: no.-lyok 노력 }
student: ha̍k-seng [ha'k~seng] 學生 = M ( ㄒㄩㄝˊㄕㄥ ) {KOREAN pronunciation is like that of the Taiwanese scholar sound: hak-seng 학생 }
summer: [1] joa̍h-thiⁿ 熱天 ; [2] hē-thiⁿ 夏天
sun: ji̍t-thâu 日頭 ; M=太陽 (considered male)
suppress hān-chè 限制
talent, skill: pún-téng 本 + (等 or 頂) ; M = 本領 ( ㄅㄣˇㄌㄧㄥˇ ), 能幹 ( ㄋㄥˊ ㄍㄢˋ )
television: tiān-sī [tian-~si-] 電視 = M
test, test run: chhì-giām 試驗 (used when there is an expected result to the "experiment")
thank you : [1] ló.-la̍t [lo./~la't] 勞力 (literally -- work hard) [2] to~sia- 多謝 (literally - much thanks) [3] kám-siā 感謝 (thank you, thankful) {NOTE: Korean shares the same root - "kam-sa ha-da" 감사하다} ; M = 謝謝 ( ㄒㄧㄝˋ ㄒㄧㄝˋ )
that (one) : [pronoun only, refers to things (not people)] he
there: hia 遐 (note: no tone sandhi); M = 那裡
therefore: só.-í [so./~i/] 所以 = M
thing, article, object: mi̍h-kiā* [mi'h~kia*-] 物件 ; M = 東西 , 物
thirsty: chhuì-ta [chhui\~ta]
this (one) : [1] che {not in compound words; no tone sandhi; pronoun only, refers to things (not people)} , [2] chit (即 or 卽 {JI= Chek} {demonstrative adjectival, frequently in compound words, usual tone sandhi}
they/them: in 怹 ; M = 他們
today: kin-á-ji̍t [kin~a/~jit'] 今仔日 ; M = 今天
together: chò-hóe [cho\~hoe/] 作伙 ; M = 一起
too (much, overly): [intensifier] siu* (no Chinese character equivalent) ; M = 太 ( ㄊ ㄞˋ )
tornado: chin tōa ê kńg-lê-á-hong 真大的捲螺仔風 (Literally: very large whirlwind); M= 龍捲風 (some borrow from Mandarin: liông-kńg-hong)
tragedy (type of play): khó.-chhut [kho./~chhut] 苦出 ; M = 悲劇 (ㄅㄟ ㄐㄩˋ)
train: hoe/~chhia 火車 =M (ㄏㄨㄛˇ ㄔㄜ)
trick, lie, deceive: phiàn-lâng { as in: "kā lâng phiàn-.khì"}
turn: oat
unusual: hui~siong^
very: chin 真 =M
violence, brute force: [1] po̍k-le̍k 暴力; [2] ke̍k-lia̍t 劇烈; [3] béng-lia̍t 猛烈 ; [4] po̍k-hêng 暴行
violent: [1] kiông ; [2] hiong-po̍k ; [3] ke̍k-lia̍t-.ê 劇烈ê ; [4] ke̍k-toan -.ê 劇?ê ; [5] chho͘ 粗
violent temper [1] lia̍t-sèng ; [2] chin pháiⁿ sèng-tē
visit, arrive: lâi-kàu [lai^~kau\] 來到 = M (ㄌㄞˇ ㄉㄠˋ)
wailing song: khàu-tiâu-á 哭絛仔 (Motif in Koa-á-hì, traditional Taiwanese Opera)
walk: kiâⁿ 行 ;M= 走 ( ㄗㄡˇ )
walk around the street (in no particular direction... e.g. when shopping): se̍h-ke
warm, approachable-feeling: chhin-chhiat 親切 (feels like you are already a friend after only the first time meeting the person)
water, drinking water: kun/~chui/ 滾水 ; M=開水
we, us: [1] lán [lan/] 咱 (inclusive of everyone) M= 我們
[2] goán [goan/], gun/ (exclusive of person spoken to) 阮 ; M= 我們
wear: chhēng [chheng-] 穿 = M (ㄔㄨㄢ )
weep, wail: háu [also describes the wind blowing/howling]
whiskey, hard-liquor: kāu-chiú [kau-~chiu/] 厚酒 (literally: heavy wine)
wife: [1] bó͘ (possibly of Austronesian origin) [2] cha-bó͘-lâng (first syllable from Austronesian "cha": person; Rukai: u-tsao, Favorlang: cho, Pazeh: sa/u) [3] khan-~chhiu/ (literally: hand hold - the woman you are permitted to hold hands with) Taiwanese wording... from aboriginal custom. [4] thài-thài 太太(from Mandarin)
will, purpose: chí-ì [chi/~i\] 旨意 = M ( ㄓˇ 一ˊ)
winter: [1] kôaⁿ-thiⁿ 寒天 (cold season) ; [2] tang~thi* 冬天 = M ( ㄉㄨㄥ ㄊㄧㄢ )
whirlwind: kńg-lê-á-hong 捲螺仔風 (literally: wind that whirls like a snail's shell)
worker: kang-lâng [kang~lang^] 工人
Yin-Yang (Taoism): im-iông , im 陰 = female element/principle ; iông 陽 = male element/principle
you (plural): [1] lán [lan/] 咱 you including me; [2] lín [lin/] 您 you excluding me ; M = 你們
you (singular): [1] lí [li/] 你 = M


GEOGRAPHIC TERMS:

Phêⁿ-ô͘ -- (Penghu or the Pescadores Islands -- in the Taiwan Strait)


SET PHRASES:

hoaⁿ-thâu-hí-bīn 歡頭喜面 : beaming with joy, all smiles ; M = 滿面春風
hoaⁿ-thiⁿ-hí-tōe 歡天喜地 : exceedingly glad, jumping with joy
siōng-pan 上班 : go to work (at an office)


EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS:

• Hīⁿ khang khah tāng. ("Ear hole is heavier." = meaning: "hard of hearing") {Hīⁿ khang tāng ê lâng kóng-oē chhin-chhiūⁿ teh sio-mē. ("Heavy-ear-hole-people talking [sounds] just like they are scolding/fighting.")}

• tiò kim-ku-sài 釣金龜婿 = gold-digger ("Catch a golden turtle husband") (The literal word for digging gold is ó͘ kim-kak = mine for gold)


SAYINGS:

•Tōa chiah ke bān thî. 大隻雞慢啼 ("A larger chicken is slower to crow." = meaning: "Some endeavor going slowly at the start may become very successful in the end.")

• "Liáu chîⁿ, siau chai." 了錢消災 = if you can fix it with money, spend the money

• "M̄-kiaⁿ chi̍t-bān, siōng kiaⁿ bān-it." “毋驚一萬,上驚萬一” [chi̍t-bān 一萬 NT$10,000 ; bān-it 萬一 unexpected event = Hō͘ lâng siū-bē-kàu ê tāi-chì...] (people are not afraid of spending money, but they are afraid of something unexpected...)

~260 words... last updated 2009/10/14